Analytical and numerical studies on formability of metal/polymer/metal sandwich sheets


  • Abdolvahed Kami
  • Kwansoo Chung
  • Dorel Banabic


GTN model, M-K model, Nakazima test, formability, forming limit curve, sandwich sheet


The aim of this study is to analyze formability of three-layer metal/ polymer/metal sandwich sheets. For this purpose, forming limit curves (FLCs) of sandwich sheets with particular configurations were determined using two different approaches, namely an anisotropic GTN model and a modified M–K model. Both GTN and M-K models use mechanical properties of separate layers instead of an equivalent property for the whole sandwich sheet. Effects of thickness, material, and sequence (with respect to the forming punch) of the metallic skin layers on the FLCs of the sandwich sheets were also studied. The results showed that, all of the considered parameters had significant effects on formability of the sandwich sheets. Furthermore, it was found that, the sandwich sheets can have their formability improved by increasing the thickness of the layers and appropriately selecting the layering sequence.


KIM, Jang-Kyo, YU, Tong-Xi, Forming and failure behaviour of coated, laminated and sandwiched sheet metals: a review, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 63, 1–3, pp. 33–42, 1997.

DICELLO, J.A., Steel-Polypropylene-Steel laminate – A new weight reduction material, SAE Technical Paper 800078, 1980.

LINK, Todd M., Formability and performance of steel-plastic-steel laminated sheet materials, SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0079, 2001.

KIM, Kee Joo, KIM, Cheol-Woong, CHOI, Byung-Ik, SUNG, Chang Won, KIM, Heon Young, WON, Si-Tae, RYU, Ho-Yeun, Formability of aluminum 5182-polypropylene sandwich sheet for automotive application, Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering, 2, 4, pp. 574–581, 2008.

SOKOLOVA, Olga, CARRADÓ, Adele, PALKOWSKI, Heinz, Production of customized highstrength hybrid sandwich structures, Advanced Materials Research, 137, pp. 81–128, 2010.

SOKOLOVA, Olga, KÜHN, Marcus, PALKOWSKI, Heinz, Deep drawing properties of lightweight steel/polymer/steel sandwich composites, Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 12, 2, pp. 105–112, 2012.

HARHASH, M, PALKOWSKI, H, CARRADÒ, A, Forming potential of low-density laminates, Niedersächsisches Symposium Materialtechnik, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, 2015.

PALKOWSKI, Heinz, CARRADÒ, Adele, Three-layered sandwich material for lightweight applications, Emerging Materials Research, 3, R3, pp. 130–135, 2014.

KAMI, Abdolvahed, DARIANI, Bijan Mollaei, COMSA, Dan Sorin, BANABIC, Dorel, VANINI, Ali Sadough, LIEWALD, Mathias, An Experimental Study on the Formability of a Vibration Damping Sandwich Sheet (Bondal), Proc Rom Acad Ser A, 18, 3, pp. 281 290, 2017.

KIM, K.J., KIM, D., CHOI, S.H., CHUNG, K., SHIN, K.S., BARLAT, F., OH, K.H., YOUN, J.R., Formability of AA5182/polypropylene/AA5182 sandwich sheets, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 139, 1–3, pp. 1–7, 2003.

SOMAYAJULU, Thamma S.V., Vibration and formability characteristics of aluminum-polymer sandwich materials, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 2004.

KIM, Daeyong, KIM, Hyunki, KIM, Ji Hoon, LEE, Myoung-Gyu, KIM, Kee Joo, BARLAT, Frederic, LEE, Youngseon, CHUNG, Kwansoo, Modeling of forming limit for multilayer sheets based on strain-rate potentials, Int. J. Plast., 75, pp. 63–99, 2015.

KAMI, Abdolvahed, MOLLAEI DARIANI, Bijan, COMSA, Dan Sorin, BANABIC, Dorel, SADOUGH VANINI, Ali, LIEWALD, Mathias, Calibration of GTN damage model parameters using hydraulic bulge test, Rom. J. Techn. Sci. – Appl. Mechanics, 61, 3, pp. 248–264, 2016.

KAMI, Abdolvahed, DARIANI, Bijan Mollaei, SADOUGH VANINI, Ali, COMSA, Dan Sorin, BANABIC, Dorel, Numerical determination of the forming limit curves of anisotropic sheet metals using GTN damage model, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 216, pp. 472–483, 2015.

HILL, R., A theory of the yielding and plastic flow of anisotropic metals, Proc. R. Soc. Lond AMath. Phys. Eng. Sci., 193, 1033, pp. 281–297, 1948.

BRUNET, M., MGUIL, S., MORESTIN, F., Analytical and experimental studies of necking in sheet metal forming processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 80–81, pp. 40–46, 1998.



Most read articles by the same author(s)