On the modelling of the human knee joint
This paper describes the three-dimensional dynamic response of the tibio-femoral joint when subjected to sudden external pulsing loads utilizing an anatomical dynamic knee model. The model consists of two body segments in contact (the femur and the tibia) executing a general three-dimensional dynamic motion within the constraints of the ligamentous structures. Each of the articular surfaces at the tibio-femoral joint is represented by a separate mathematical function. The joint ligaments are modeled as nonlinear elastic springs. The six-degree-of-freedom joint motions are characterized using six kinematic parameters and ligamenous forces are expressed in terms of these six parameters.
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